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Compensation package 2005 as an indicator of the Ukrainian labor market

???? ???????,

???????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????? "????? ??"

???????????? ? ??????? "???????? ?? ?????????" ? 1 ?? 2005 ???

? ????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ?????????? "????? ?. ?." ??? ?? ?????????? 10 ???, ????????? ??????? ????????, ??? ??????? ?????????? ????? ????? - ???????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????, ???????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?????????. ?????, ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????, ???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????? (???????? ????? ???????????????? ??????), ? ????? ? ????????? ??????, ? ?????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ?????, ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????, ????? ??? ????????? ??????????, ????????? ?????, ???????? (?????????????? ????? ???????????????? ??????). ????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ? ????? "?????? ?????????? ???? ? ??????????? - 2005", ??????? ??????????? 109 ?????? ? ????????, ???????????? ??? ?????????? ? ???? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????. ?? ?? ???????? ???? ?????????? ?????????, ?? ?????????? ? ??????, ?? ?????? ???????, ?? ??? ??????, ??????? ??? ?????????? ?? ?????????.

?????? ? ???????, ?????????? ? ??????????????? ???????? "?????????????? ? ?????????"1. "?????????? ????, ??? ? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????. ??? ???????????? ????????? ??????????, ??? ????????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? 500 000 ???????? ? ???, ????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ????????, ??????? ? ????. ???? ????????? ????? ????????? ????? ??, ??? ? ????????? ??????????, ? ?????, ? ??????? ?? ????????, ????? ??????????? ??????? ????????, ??? ? ?????? ???? ???????. ?????? ? ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ? ???? ????? ?????????, ????????? ??? ????? ??????? ????????. ???????????, ????? ????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?? 50 000 ???????? ? ??? ?????? ???????. ????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ??????? 450 000 ????????. ?????? ? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ????????. ???? ?????????? ????????????, ?? ????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ??? ???, ???? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????? ?? 500 000 ???????? ? ???. ? ????? ????????, ????????? ?????? ??????, ???????? ?????????????? ???????, ????? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????, ??? ? ?????? ????? ???????".

? ??????? ????? ???????? ? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ?????????? ???????? 1998 ????, ??????? ?????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????. ? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ? ????, ????? ?????????? ?? ????? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????. ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ????, ? ? ??? - ? ??????????? ?? ????????????????? ????????????. ????? ?? ????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ???????????. ??? ????? ? ?????????? ?????? ? ????? ???????: ???? ???? ????????, ??????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ???????????? ? ??????????, ?? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????? ???????????. ????????, ????? ??? ??????????? ?? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ? ??????, ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ????, ??? ??? ????????? ? ?????? ? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????. ? ?????? ???????, ????????? ???? ? ?????? ?????? ? ???? ? ???????? ? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???????????????: ???? ??????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??????, ?? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????????. ??????? ? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ????????, ? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????????.

? 2005 ???? ? ?????? ?????????????????? ???????, ??????????????? ?????????? "????? ?. ?.", ?????? ?? 165 ?????????? ? 7022 ??????????? ???????????? 53 ????????, ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ? ???????. ????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???, ??????????????? ??????, - ? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ????????? (43% ????????????), ????? ???????? (28%), ?????? ???? ?????????? ????????????? (19%).

??? ?? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ????? ? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????, ??? ?????????? ??????-????????, ???????????? ???????? ?????????. ? ???? ???? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? 14 ?????: ???????? (17%), ??????? (12%), ??? (11%), ??????? ? ????????? (?? 10%), ??????? (8%), ??????????????, ????????? ? ????????? (?? 6%), ?????? ? ?????? (?? 4%), ?????, ?????? ? ?????? (?? 2%). ???? ?????????? ??????????? ? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????. ?? ????????????? ??? ??? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ? ??????? ? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????????????????? ????????. ??? ???? ????? ????? ??????????? ????? ?????????, ???????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? - ????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????????. ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ????????.

?????? ??????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ????????. ??????? ???? ????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ????????????: "???? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? (??????, ???????????, ??????????? ? ?????? ????????)". ?????? ??? ????????????? ??? - ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ????: "? ??? ?? "?????" ??? ??????????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????, ??? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????????, ??????? ? ????? ??????? ?? ?????. ??, ? ???????, ??? ??? ?? ???????? ? ??????, ?? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??????, ????? ? ?? ????? ??????...".

????????? ???????, ????? ???????? ???? ?? ???????????, ??????? ??????????? ??????????, ????????????? ?? ????. ????????? ? ????????? ??????? ????????-?????????? ??? ????????? ?? ????????? ??? ??????????, ???????????? ????????????????? ?????????, ??-??????????? ??? ????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????????. ???? ???????, ?? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ??????. ????? ????, ??? ???? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????????? ? ????, ??? ????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ??? ???? ????????, ????? ????????? ????? ????????? ? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????????. ??????? ???????? ?????????????????? ???????? (????????, ?????????? ??????????) ? ???????? ?????? ? ????? ???????? ????? ????????? ????????????, ????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ? ?????? "????? ?? ??????". ??? ????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ????? ? ?????-???? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ??? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ????????. ????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ? ?????????, ????????? ???????? ???????, ?????????? ???????????, ??????, ?????? ????????? ???? ???? ? ???? ???????. ? ???????????? ???? ?? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????? "? ????????", ????? ???????? ?????? ????????? "???????? ????" ????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ??????? ???????????. ????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ?, ??? ????? ?????? ???, ??????????? ???????, ??? ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ? "????????????", ?????? ???-???? ????? ??? ??????.

?? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????????, ??????? ??????? ??????? ? ????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ????????????. ?? ??????? ???? ??????????? ???????????? 13 ???????? ????????. ???, ? ?????????, ????????, ????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? (16%), ????????????????? ??????????? (15%), ??????? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? (10%), ??????????????? ???????????? ? ????????????????????? ?????????? (9%), ????????????? ? ??????????? ????????????? (9%), ????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ? ??? (9%), ????????????? ??????????? (2%), ?????????? ? ???????????????????? ?????????? (2%), ??????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? (2%). ????????? ?????? - 2005 ???????? ????????? ????????, ? ??? ????? ?????????????? (11%), ????????????-?????????, ???????????-???????????????, ???????????-?????????????? (4%). ?????? ?????????? ?????, ????? ???????????????? ? ????? ????????? ????? ????????????????? ????????????.

???????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ? ???, ??? ???????? ??? ???????? (? ???? ???? ??? 8% ?????????? ????????????) ???????? ?????????? ? ????????????????? ???????? ? ????, ????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ????????????. ? ????????, ????? ?????? ???? ????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ????? ??????, ??? ????????? ???????? ????????????. ??????? ??? ?????? ? ?????? ??????????? ??????????????? ? ????????????, ????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????????? ????????, ??? "??????????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????", ? ?????????? ???????? ????????. ?????????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????????, ??? ??? ???????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???, ??? ???????. ????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????, ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ?? ???????? ??????. ?????????????, ??????????????, ?? ?????? ??????, ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ????????, ???????????????? ???????? ? ????. ????? ??????????, ??? ??? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ????????? ??????? ????, ??? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???? ? ????????? ????? ??????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ? ????? ??????.

???????? ??? ????????????? ????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ? ???, ??? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????: 43% ???????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????. ????? ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????????: "?? ???? ????????? ??? ??" ???, ????????, ????????????: "? ??? ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ????, ??? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????????".

??????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????, ?????? ?? ?????? ? ??????????, ?? ? ? ??????????????? ?????????. ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ???? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????? - 75% ?????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ???????????, ???????????? ?? ??? ??????????????. ??? ?????????????? ? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ?????? (300-500 ???. ? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ????????) ? ???????????? ????? ???????? (15 000 - 20 000 ???. ? ???). ?? ??? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??? ???? ???????????????? ????????: "???????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ????? ????????. ????????? ????? ????????? ???????? 250 ???????? ? ???, ?? ???? ???????? ?? ??????? ????? ? 500 ????????. ??? ???? ???????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ? ??????? 200 ????????. ?? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ?????????, ???????? ??????????, ??? ? ?????, 100% ???? ???????? ?? ??????????? ????????????". ???????? ? ???????????????? ???? ?????? (?? ????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????) ????????: ???? ???????? ??????????? ????????? "?????".

??????? ????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ????????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????. ???????????, ??? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ? ????? ??????????, ??? ??? ??? ????? ? ????????? ????. ?????? ?? ?? ?? ??????, ???????? ?? ??????????? ? ? ??????, ???? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ??????, ?? ????? ????????, ?????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ? ??????? - ?? ??? ???????? ???, ? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ???, ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????. ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? (Richard H. Thaler) ?????????????, ??? ???? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?????, ???? ??? ????????? ?? ??? ???? ??????. ?????? ???????????, ??? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ?????????? ????, ??????? ????????? ?? ????????, ????????????? ? 50 ?? ?? ?????? ????. ???????? ??????? ??????, ? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????. ??????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ? ???? ????? ??? ????????? ????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ?????, ??????? ???? ????????? ?? ?????, ?? ???? ??????, ? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ? ??????? - ???. (???????, ??? ??????????? ?? ???????????????? ?? ???????, ??? ??????? ???????????? ?? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ???????????.)

?????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ?? ??, ??? ??????????? ????????? ?? ????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????????. ????? ????, ??????????, ??????? ????? ??????, ???????? ????????????? ??? ?????? ? ????????? "?????????? ????????????????": "???? ????, ??? ? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????, ? ???????? ??? ? ???????? ?? ????, ??? ??????".

????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ????????? ????? ??????, ?? ? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ? ??? ??? ??????????. ???????? ? ?????? ???????: "? ???????? ??? ?????: ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????. ???????? ?????? ????????????? ??????, ????? ??????? ??????????? ??????. ?? ???? ???? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ? 250 ???????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ? 200 ???????? ??? ?????????? ???????, ?? ?????? ? 200 ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ? 250. ??????? ???????? ??? ????, ????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????????, ?????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???? ?????? ?????? ? 50 ????????, ? ?? ????????? - ? ???? ?????? ? ??????". ? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ???????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ???? ????????, ??? ?????.

???????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????????????, ???????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ????????????. ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ?? "????????" (?? ????? ???? ???????????????), ?????? ??? ??????? ?????, ????????? ?? 3 ???????, ??????? ??? ????????? ?? ????. ??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ????? ?? ???????? (3 ??????? ??? ??? ???? ????????????? ??????????). ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????, ??? ??????????, ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ?????????, ????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????. ????????, ??? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??? ????????.

?? ? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????, ??? ????? ???????? ????????? ????? ????? ?????????????? ?????, ??? ?????? ?????? ???????????. ????? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????????? 5 ??? - ????? 50% ?????????? ??????. ?????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????? ????????, ??? ????? ??????: ??? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????????? "?? ?????"? ????????, ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?? ?????????, ??????????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????.

??????? ????????? ?????, ????? ????????, ? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????. ??????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????????????? ????????, ??????? ????????????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????. ????????, ????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ? ??? ????? ??????????, ???? ? ??????????? ????? ????????. ??? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????: ??? ???????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????, ??????? ????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????. ? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????

???? ?????????? ????????? ?????????, ????????? ? ?????? ?????? ??????, ? ????????? ? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????, ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ??? ?????????? ????????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????? ????????????. ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? (??????????? ??? ??????????), ???????, ??? ?????????? ?? ???????, ? ???????? ????????? ?????????????????? ????? ???????????, ?????? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ??????, ?? ? ? ??????? ?????????, ??????????, ???????? ? ??. ? ????? 41% ????????? ?????????????? ???????????, 36% ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????. ??? ????, ???? ???? ???? ? ???-?????????, ?? ???????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????????, ?? ? ??? ?????. ? ?? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????: "??, ???????!" (???????? ?????? ?? ?????????????). ????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????????.

????????? ?????, ??? ??????, ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????????, ???????????? ???????? ??????????, ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??? ????????????, ????????? ?????? ?????. ?, ? ???? ???????, ??? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ? ???-????, ??? ? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????????? ? ??? ?? ?????? ??????????? (??????? ?????????, ?????? ??????, ???????? ? ?. ?.). ? ???????, ????????? ???????????? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ? ???, ????? ?????????? ?? ??????????, ????????????? ??? ?????? ?????, ???? ??? ??? ??????? ??????: ??? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????????????? ????????. ?????? ??? ???????????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????????????? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ????????????? ????????. ?? ?? ??????????? ? ??? ????????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ????????, ??????? ????????????? ???? ???????, ?????????????, ???????.

????????? ?????????? ? ???? ?????? - ??????????????? ????????????????? ???????, ? ?????????? ?? ??????????????? ???????? ????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ??????. ????????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????????. ????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????, ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? - ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????. ??? ??????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????????: ???? ?? ??????????? ???????, ?? ??????????? ?????? ????. ??????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ? ???????, ? ????????????? ??????? - ??????? ?????????? - ?? ???????? ??????????. ????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??????????????? - ????????? ????????. ???? ?????, ??? ??????? ???????, ??? ????? ?????? ? ??????? ????? ??? ??????. ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ????????? ????. ???????? ?????????? ? ? ???? ?????: ?????????????? ???????? - ?????????? ???????, ????? ? ???????? - ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????.

?????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ????????? ?????, ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????????? ????????????: 25% ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????, ????????? (16%) ??? ???????? (9%) ?????????? ?????????.

????????????? ?????????????????? ????????? ????? ????? 5% ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? - ? ???????? ??? ???-????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ????????.

? ????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ???????????: ??-???????? ?????????? ???????????, ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????, ?? ????????? 9% ?????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ?????. ? ?????? ?? ?? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????: ? 2004 ???? 0,9% ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????, ?? ??????? ???? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ??????, ???????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?? ???????? ? 0,5% - ?????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ???. ???????? ????? ????????? ??????: ???????????????? (32% ???? ???????????? ?????????), ?????????? (29%), ?????????????? ?????????? (33%), ?????????? (19%). ? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ???? - 7% ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????. ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? - ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??? 3% ???????????. ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????????, ???????????? ?? ?????, ?? ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ??????, ?? ??????? ???????? ?? ??, ??? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? 200-300 ???. ? ???, ?, ????????, ??????????? ??????? ???? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? (Michael E. Porter) ????? ????? 1600 ???. ????????? ????? ???????????? ?? ????????...

? ???????? ???????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????. ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? (89%) ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ?????? ????? ???????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ???? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????????? "??????????? ??????". ???????? ????????????? ??????, ??????? ????? ???? ???????????? ??? ????? ??????, ???? ?? ???????? ?? ??? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????. ???? ?????????, ??????????? ??? ???, ???????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????, ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? (36% ?????????? ??????), ??????????? ?????????: ????????, ???????????, ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?? ?????????? (47%).

???????, ? ??????? - ??????? ?????????? ?????. ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???: 80% ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?? ???? ??? ? ????. ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????, ? ??? ?????, ? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?????????, ??????????? ????? ???????. ?????????????? ???? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? - ?????????? ?????? ??????????, ???????? ?????????. ?????? ????? ???? ? ??????????????? ???????. ????????????? ?????? ??????? (Daniel Kahneman) ? ????? ??????? (Amos Tversky) ????????????, ??? ???? ??? ???????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????????, ??????? ?? ???????????? ????????, ?. ?. ?? ?????????? ? ?? ??????????????. ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ????????. ? ???? ????????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?? ??, ??? ???????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????, ???? ? ?? ??? ???? ???????. ? ????????? ??????? ???????? 83% ?????????? ????????????. ? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????????? 11-14% ?? ???????????? ??????? ??????. ???????? ?????? ???? ? ????????? ???????????????? ??????? - ? ??????? ???????? ? ???? ???????? ??????? ????? ?? 40%. ?????? ????? ????????, ??? ????? ??? ?????? ? ????? ??????? ??????, ???, ????????, ??????? ??????? ? FMCG (???????? - ????????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????) ??? ? ???????????????? ?????????. ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????? ?? 2005 ??? - 79% ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????? ?? 10%.

?????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? 2004 ????. ??? ????? ?????????? ??? ?????????: ???????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ? ??????????? ?? ??????, ? ??????? ?????????? ????????, ? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????? - ????????? ??? ????????????????? ???????????. ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??? ?????? ??????????? (??? ??????? ????????????? ??? ????? ???????????, ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? 40-??????? ??????).

??? ????? ?? ???????, ???????????? ?? ???. 1, ???????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ? 2004 ???? ????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ???????. ??????? ??????? ????? ??????. ??? ???? ???????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????????, ??????????????, ??????????????? ????????????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????. ?? ????, ??, ??? ??????? ??????, ? ???????????, ??? ?? ?????????? ??????, ? ????? ????????? "? ?????" ??? ????, ?? ??????????? ???? ???????? "?????? ??????" (? ?????????? ???????) ????????????. ?????????? ?? ?? ??????? ??????????? - ???? ? ???????????.

??????? ????? ???????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??? (???. 2). ? ???????????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????????. ??????, ??? ???????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ????????????????? ????????. ????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????. ????? ????????????, ??? ??? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ????, ??? ????? ?????????? ??????, - ???? ????? ??????? 1998 ???? ???????? ????? ????? ?????? ? ???????????. ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????????, ????? ????? ????????? ? ????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? - ???????? ? ????????? ???? ??????, ????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????-????? ??????????? (????????? ? ???????? 5% ?????? ?????????? 100%).

?????? ?? "???????? ?? ??????" ???????? ? ????????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????: ? ??????, ??????? ???????? ?????????? (???. 3) ? ?????? ????????????????? ???????????? (???. 4). ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ??? ?????????. ?????? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????????: ?? ???????????? ?? ????????????? ?? ??????????????? ???? ? ????????????. ?????? - ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ????????????? ???????.

??? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ?? ????? ????????????????? ? ??????? ???????????, ???????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ? ??????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????????. ???? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ???????, ? ???????? ??????? ? ????? ???????? ??????, ? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????????. ? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ????????? ??????? ? ???????? "?????????????" ??????????? (??? ?????????????? ???? ? ????? ?? ??????), ?? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????? ? ???? ????????? ???????????????? ????????.

????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? "??????????". ?????????? ??? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????????????? ???????. ??????? ???????????? ????????, ??????????? ?? ??? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????????. ?? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????, ????? ??????? ???? ??????. ??? ????, ???? ?????, ?????????? 100-? ????? ? ??????? ?????????????, ????? ??????????? ? ???????, ?????????? 101-? ?????, ?? ?????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ??????, ??? ???? ?? ?????? ??, ??? ???????? 9-? ? 10-? ?????. ?????? ???????? ? ???, ??? ??????????? ???????????, ??? ???????, ????? ????? ? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?, ???????????, ???????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ?????. ? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ????????, ? ??????, ?????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ????, ????? ???? ????????? ???? ??????? ?? ??????? ? ????????. ??????????? "??????? ??????????" ??????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ????? ????????????????? ??????, ???-??????? ?, ??? ?? ????? ????????? ?? ????? ??????, ? ??????? ???????.

????, ????? ??????????????, ??? ?? ????? ????? ???????????? ????? ??? ???????: ???????????? ??????? "??????", ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????? ??????? "??????????" ?? ??????? "???????" ??????????. ????????? ???????????? ??????: ??? ????????? ? ???? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????????? ??????, ??? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????????. ??? ???? ?????? ????????, ??? ????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ? ????????????: "?? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????? ???????, ? ????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ? ????? ??????????? ???". ??, ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????????, ??????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ????????????????? ??????. ? ? ???? ???????? ????? ????????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ???? - ??????? ???-?????????? ? ???, ??? ????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????, ???????? ????????????? ?? ???????-???????????? ??????????? ?????, ?? ??????? ????, ???????????. ???? ? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? - ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? (??????? ????? ?????????? ???-?????????? ? ?????????? ????????) ? ???????? ???????????????? ??????? (??????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????). ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ???????. ????????, ? ?????????, ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????????, ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ? ????????. ???? ??? ???? ??? ????????, ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ????????, ????? ????????? ????????????????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ????? ?????, ?? ?? ???????? ?????? ???????, ??? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ? ????????????? ? ???? ???????????????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ????????. ? ?????, ??????????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ????? ?????, ?????? ????????? ????? ????? ????. ??? ????? ?? ? ???????? ????????????? ?? ????????? ? ????????, ??????? ?? ?????????, ? ?? ??????????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ? ????????????, ??????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ???????. ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? "??????????????" ??????, ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ? ????? ???????? ????????????, ? ? ????????? ??????? - ????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ????? ????, ??? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????????. ???????, ????? ???? ???????? ?? ???-????????????, ?? ????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ????????? ? ????, ????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????? ???????????.

??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??????, ? ?????? - ?? ??? ??? ??????? ?? 25%. ? ????? ??? 25% ?????????? ??????? ????? ???? ? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??????, ????????? ?????? ??????????????. ??? ??? ????????????, ??????? ???????? ???????????? ????????, ????? ???????????? ??????? - 18% ??? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??????, ?????????? ???? ??? ???????? ?????? ????? 28 ???./???.

??? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????, ???????, ??? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ? ????????, ??? ??????? ???-???? ????? ??? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??????. ?????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ????? ? ???, ??? ???? ???-?? ?? ??? ?????? ????: "???? ??, ? ??? ?? ???? ? ?? ???????????". ?? ??? ???, ???? ???? ?????????? ?????, ?? ????? ???????? ??????, ????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????, ?????? ??? ?? ????????? ? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ? ????, ????????? ????????.

??? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ? ??????? ? 2000-2005 ????? .

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